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Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defence. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. The immune system helps your body fight infections and other diseases. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy.

Immunology exploration tends to a fascinating medium for the preface, understanding and explanation of complex sensible information. Data appears as illuminative mix plates, exceptional exploration papers, councils, medications and theoretical structures. The position of argument reaches to the cell immunology, excrescence immunology, immunoregulation, immunopathology, supplementary immunology, molecular immunology and autoimmunity have assured and microbial restriction including viral immunology, transplantation immunology, Immunoendocrinology, translational immunology, Neuroimmunology and clinical immunology.

  • Antibody Engineering & Technology
  • Proteomics
  • Antigen-Antibody Interactions
  • Microarray
  • Recombinant Immuno-Conjugates
  • Characterization of Lymphocytes
  • Immunodiagnostic & Immuno techniques
  • Transcriptomics              
  • Immunological Assay
  • Nano-Immunotechnology
  • Technology Development and Applications

Immunomodulators are medicines that can support the vulnerable function by modifying, in a salutary way, the vulnerable system’s response to a trouble. They're used to treat conditions similar as multiple sclerosis (wherein the jitters don't serve duly), heritable angioedema (HAE-an vulnerable complaint passed down through families), rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its own joints causing pain, swelling, and loss of function), and Cryopyrin- associated periodic runs (CAPS). Although they don't cure multiple sclerosis and HAE, they may reduce the occurrences of symptoms in cases with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (course of complaint where symptoms flare up from time to time) and decelerate down the progression of the complaint.

The vulnerable system is a complex network of cells, apkins, and organs. Together, they help the body fight infections and conditions. When the vulnerable system recognizes an antigen (a substance that the body identifies as dangerous or foreign) which can be origins similar as bacteria and contagions, chemicals or poisons, and cells that are damaged from cancer or sunburn, it produces antibodies (proteins that work to attack, weaken, and destroy antigens).

Eco immunology is an interdisciplinary field combining aspects of immunology with ecology, biology, physiology, and elaboration. The field of Eco immunology, while youthful, seeks to give an ultimate perspective for proximate mechanisms of immunology. Cerebral mechanisms that allows the individual organisms to descry the implicit presence of complaint- causing spongers in their immediate terrain and to engage in behaviours that prevents contact with those objects and individualities is known as Behavioral impunity.

Cytokine-grounded immunotherapy is a promising field in the cancer treatment, since cytokines, as proteins of the vulnerable system, are suitable to modulate the host vulnerable response toward cancer cell, as well as directly induce excrescence cell death. The potential of cytokines in the field of cancer immunotherapy is best exemplified by high dose IL-2, which can induce durable complete responses in a subset of metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients.

The study of the immune response that occurs when an organ or tissue is moved (grafted) from one individual to another is known as Transplant Immunology. The immune response to a transplanted organ consists of both cellular (lymphocyte mediated) and humoral (antibody mediated) mechanisms. Although other cell types are also involved, the T cells are central in the rejection of grafts. The rejection reaction consists of the sensitization stage and the effector stage

  • Immunosuppressive agents: Current trends
  • Tolerance induction
  • Xenotransplantation
  • Islet cell transplantation            
  • Immunocell therapy
  • Anti-donor antibodies and current research

Reproductive Immunology is a field of drug that studies the relations between the vulnerable system and the reproductive system. The current area of study in reproductive drug is the part of the vulnerable system concerning intermittent gestation loss and repeated IVF failures. As already stated, reproductive immunology is a highly controversial area of medicine. Reproductive tests and treatments are not fully proven or accepted, are expensive, and have associated adverse events.

T cells can wipe out infected or cancerous cells. They also direct the vulnerable response by helping B lymphocytes to exclude overrunning pathogens. B cells produce antibodies. B lymphocytes, also called B cells, produce a type of protein called an antibody. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. B cells, which mature in the bone marrow, are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity. The cell-mediated response begins when a pathogen is engulfed by an antigen-presenting cell, in this case, a macrophage.

Immunogenetics is a branch of immunology concerned with the interrelations of heredity, complaint, and the vulnerable system and its factors. Autoimmune diseases arise from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers that disrupt the immune system's ability to ignore a person's own tissue and cells. In rare cases, an autoimmune disease is monogenic, caused by mutations in a single gene.

  • Genetic Research
  • Vasculitis and Autoimmune Disease
  • The Immunogenetics of Neurological Disease
  • Bone involvement in Monogenic Auto-inflammatory Syndromes
  • Immunoglobulin Genotypes and Cognitive functions
  • Mechanisms behind TB, HBV, and HIV Chronic infections
  • Immunogenetics and Pharmacogenetics            
  • Chronic Inflammation

A vulnerable complaint is also known as dysfunction of the vulnerable system and these are characterized in several different ways. a) By the affected element (s) of the vulnerable system b) By hyperactive or underactive Immune system c) By natural or acquired conditions. Autoimmune diseases can affect many types of tissues and nearly any organ in your body. They may cause a variety of symptoms including pain, tiredness (fatigue), rashes, nausea, and headaches more... 

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  • Psoriasis
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Vasculitis

Monoclonal Antibodies (MABs) are a type of targeted medicine remedy. These medicines honor and find specific proteins on cancer cells. There are numerous different MABs to treat cancer. They work in different ways to kill the cancer cell or stop it from growing. Monoclonal antibody remedy is a form of targeted treatment that uses lab-created antibodies that find and kill specific cancer cells. Physicians who treat cancer (oncologists) also use monoclonal antibody remedy to boost the vulnerable system’s capability to defend against cancer. Providers can use this treatment on its own or with other treatments.

Immunology is a branch of wisdom that covers the study of vulnerable system in all organisms. Immunology plays an important part in the fields of organ transplantation, oncology, rheumatology, virology, Pathology, Microbiology, bacteriology, parasitology, psychiatry, and dermatology. Clinical immunology is the study of conditions caused by diseases of the vulnerable system (failure, aberrant action, and nasty growth of the cellular rudiments of the system). It also involves in other conditions, where vulnerable responses play a part in the pathology and clinical features.

  • Immunological aspects of endocrine diseases                 
  • Immunological techniques                      
  • Immunological aspects of cardiac diseases                        
  • Immune regulation
  • Immunological aspects of allergy and anaphylaxis
  • Immunology of HIV infections
  • Immunological aspects of renal diseases            
  • Immune-mediated neurological syndromes

Considering the case of neonates and children where the immune system is not fully functional at birth and still developing later on, the chances of them being susceptible to infections and pathogensis high and response to vaccines is not that effective compared to adults. This could later lead to development of allergy, asthma or other immune disorders hence the care and prevention methods employed is discussed under Neonatal Immunology and Paediatric immunology.

Nanomedicine plays an important part in the medical field for operations as medicine delivery and opinion. The demand for the development of multiple systems, which can precisely and specifically deliver the pharmaceutical agent into the asked point, has increased over the last decade. Nanomedicines can be used in each of the way of the cancer-impunity cycle to potentiate antigen release from cancer cells, promote antigen uptake and processing by antigen- presenting cells, and support the donation of cancer antigens to T cells to stimulate T cells to fete and kill cancer cells.

An infection occurs when germs enter the body, increase in number, and cause a reaction of the body. Three things are necessary for an infection to occur: Source: Places where infectious agents (germs) live (e.g., sinks, surfaces, human skin) Susceptible Person with a way for germs to enter the body. Infections are caused by germs that enter the body, multiply, and cause harm or illness. The main types of germs that can cause infections are: Bacteria,Viruses.

Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person

Causes of infection:-

Airborne, blood borne, sexually transmitted, fecal, oral, environment, stagnant water, warm-water systems, animals

Molecular Immunology manages the appreciation of the resistant fame work and how it capacities to shield us from pathogens, analogous to bitsy organisms and infections, while in the meantime regarding the inoffensive or precious microorganisms in our conditions. Different systems employed in Molecular Immunology Antibodies neutralizing agent use Elisa, Nephelometry and Radioimmunology.

  • Immune signal transduction
  • Immune calcium signals              
  • Immune quality control
  • Immune protein folding              
  • Immunological secretion
  • Immune endocytosis
  • Immune cell motility
  • Immune ion channels
  • Cell stress response
  • Immune cell metabolism

Immunodermatology studies skin as an organ of impunity in health and conditions. Several areas like print-immunology (goods of UV light on skin defense), seditious conditions like Hidradenitis suppurativa, antipathetic contact dermatitis and atopic eczema, presumably autoimmune conditions like vtiligo and psoriasis and eventually the immunology of microbial skin conditions similar as retrovirus infection and leprosy.

  • Cutaneous Dendritic Cells in Health and Disease
  • Photo immunology
  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Non-melanoma Skin Cancer
  • Immunobiology & Immune-Based Therapies
  • Drug Eruptions
  • Immunodermatology & Viral Skin Infection
  • Clinical Dermatology
  • Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Allergic Urticaria
  • Alopecia Areata
  • Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
  • Pemphigoid Spectrum
  • Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita
  • Immunoglobulin Dermatitis
  • Advances in Immuno-Dermatology

It's the study of vulnerable system response that occurs at mucosal membrane of the bowel, the urogenital tracts and respiratory systems, i.e. face which are contact with the external terrain in healthy countries, the mucosal vulnerable system give protection against pathogens but maintains forbearance towards non-harmful commensal microbes and benign environmental substance. Since the mucosal membranes are primary contact point between a host and its terrain a large quantum of secondary lymphoid towel is set up then. The mucosa- associated lymphoid apkins or MALT provides the organism with an important line of defense.

  • Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
  • Mucosal Vaccination
  • Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection
  • Immunoglobulin A (IGA)

Branch of immunology that deals especially with the nonintercourses of the nervous system and vulnerable responses and autoimmune diseases (as multiple sclerosis) is known as NeuroImmunology. At Atlantic Health System Neuroscience, neurological specialists provide expert, compassionate diagnosis and treatment of conditions. Neuropathology is the study of diseases of the eyes and of the nervous system, which includes the: Brain. Spinal cord. Body's extensive nerve network.

  • Neuro-immune interaction
  • Epilepsy
  • Autoimmune neuropathies
  • Neuro-immunological infectious diseases
  • Maternal cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Neuro-virology
  • Blood brain barrier and diseases

Branch of  biology concerned with the part of the vulnerable system in the progression and development of cancer is known as Tumor Immunology. The most well know operation is Cancer Immune remedy whereas vulnerable system is used to treat cancer. It also be suggested that Immunosurveillance primarily functions as an element of a more general process of cancer immunoediting.

Immunoediting induces selection for certain excrescence cells, which loose dominant excrescence-specific antigens allowing the excrescence to progress. It has 3 main phases elimination, equilibrium and escape.

  • Carcinogenesis
  • Onco-genomics
  • Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy
  • Cancer therapeutic resistance
  • Antitumor Effector Cells and Regulation of Tumor Immunity
  • Tumor-Associated Antigen & Immunosuppression
  • Mechanisms of Tumor Rejection and Modulation of Antitumor Responses
  • Pathobiology of Immune System Malignancies
  • Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy & Targeted therapies
  • Drug Development & Vaccines
  • Treatment Approaches for Cancer
  • Specific / Non-specific Immunotherapies
  • Immuno-Oncology studies

Immune cells fleetly respond to damage and are central in decreeing whether a response results in a scar or juvenescence. A detailed understanding of how regenerative issues are achieved in largely regenerative organisms will give us with a frame of how to producepro-regenerative responses in humans. The human body continuously regenerates due to the peculiar properties of its resident stem cells. These cells possess the unique ability to self-renew and differentiate, and the balance between these two processes defines the stem cell fate and their primary role in tissue regeneration.

Mislike includes a misrepresented response of the vulnerable system, regularly to normal substances, for illustration, food’s or dust. The vulnerable system is a changeable system that naturally guards the body against remote interferers, for illustration, bitsy organisms and infections, while also studying for conditions, for illustration, nasty growth and autoimmunity. Allergens are substances that are strange to the body and that reason an unfavorably susceptible response. These ails incorporate roughage fever, aliment hypersensitivities, atopic dermatitis, unfavourably susceptible asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may incorporate red eyes, a bothersome rash, watery nose, briefness of breath, or swelling. There are multitudinous feathers of perceptivity, medicine Allergy, Food Allergy, Insect Allergy, Latex mislike, Mold Allergy, Pet Allergy, and Pollen Allergy. A many hypersensitivities are regular and others are all time. A many hypersensitivities might be long lasting.

Immunity is the ability of an individual to recognize the “self” molecules that make up one's own body and to distinguish them from such “nonself” molecules as those found in infectious microorganisms and toxins. This process has a prominent genetic component. Immune response is a common biological reaction that protects against tissue damage, toxicity, and tumors, whereas apoptosis is a biological process that responds to toxicity, especially DNA damage.

Here are two types of immunity: Active and Passive

Some examples of biological processes are metabolism, digestion, cell growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction

Our immune system, a network of intricate stages and pathways in the body, protects us against these harmful microbes as well as certain diseases. It recognizes foreign invaders like bacteria, viruses, and parasites and takes immediate action. Humans possess two types of immunity: innate and adaptive.